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Aromatawai 3

Due 23 Akuhata 2023

Written OR Video/Audio 
(not both)

  • Please head each answer with just the Learning outcome number eg. 5.2 - do not insert the learning outcome itself

  • Please also feel free to correlate with your whakapapa that connects to you. Where it is other than Māori, that is completely fine. There are many tikanga to feed from and you can further your own learning of yourself too.

Learning outcomes

This aromatawai is about you and your whare as a map. It also tests your ability to name principles that have stood the test of time. Remember this is your practice to articulate your current practice as well as some of your research around these areas below. 

Working with tikanga principles


Choose two key traditional principles (from the list) below and write how they affect  the pōwhiri process on the Marae - their original function. Why might these principles be important?

a) 'Transparency of purpose' (Being up front and clear about your intentions)

b) 'Manaakitanga' or 'Mana' (Mana ki te mana behaviour)

c) 'Tapu and Noa'


e) or anything you choose

NB: The focus of this LO is the word traditional, in that it encourages you to find a story or piece of kōrero that refers to pre-1800. use this article to find suitable examples but also reach out to your own people you know as they may have a story or kōrero that you can draw from. 



Apply these key principles below to a tikanga practice within the one part of the pōwhiri process (e.g MATATAKI) ?


Remember, the purpose of Matataki is to awaken a group/person to the encounter process. It can also turn up in different forms depending on the oncoming group/person (its not the same each time though the function is). So think about 'transparency of purpose' in this and why would it be important to come forward with this principle in this tikanga practice etc.


Name how principles in general are applied in your tikanga practice in business/mahi.

Articulate the general sense of how principles are applied in your tikanga practice in your mahi



Your practice explored


What is the application of aroha, manaaki and kotahitanga in the pōwhiri process in traditional times - what would have been the purpose then?

5.2 & 5.3

What is your application of  aroha, manaaki and kotahitanga in the tikanga translation part of your leadership practice (your translation of one aspect of the kawa within your practice)

Write what happened when you tried this out and also note the traditional purpose, did you find it relevant to today?

Tikanga Solutions

12.1 & 12.2

Name three tikanga solutions from your own practice that has solved or supported problem solving in...

a) your work/mahi setting

b) whānau/Hobby/community or other setting

The three tikanga solutions are to be drawn from one of these examples:

1. Kawa

2. Whakapapa (stories, lineage, history)

3. Whakatauki.

4. Karakia

5.Tapu and Noa

6. Kōtahitanga


How do you as a leader utilise tikanga practice  - give evidence from your journal/records


3.1 & 3.2: 'Transparency of purpose' is a traditional Māori principle that shows up in many places of the pōwhiri process.

The Matataki is a key place where transparency is brought forward as the kai wero, or

kai matataki will bring forward a stance of sorts, guided by the connection to the poutūārongo of their whare. In the realm of Tū, the realm of skill, craft, strength, formality, transparency of purpose is important so that manuhiri are coming on in alignment with the host people.

 Manaakitanga is a key traditional Māori principle of demonstrating hospitality,
kindness and generosity. The tikanga practice is the pōwhiri ritual (3.2) where the
process of showing respect, generosity and caring for others is demonstrated.

In the whaikōrero space, the practice is to name the elements across both the host and manuhiri groups, the mana of the people is named, connections can be made in a stronger way because of the deliberate laying out of kaupapa and relationships to land.

3.3 In my work setting these principles are really valuable they support me to execute

my teaching and coaching work. Transparency of purpose helps me to frame my sessions, plan my sessions and to guide learners, clients better. It also acts as a 'wake up to purpose' piece that gives me better results in my work. Manaakitanga makes me connect to the client/participant experience. How am I crafting and shaping the experience to arrive at a place that is of benefit and growth.

5.1: Conduct your research and find out traditionally how aroha, manaakitanga and kotahitanga expressed themselves

5.2 Give an overview of aroha, manaakitanga and kotahitanga and select an aspect OR consider the whole of the kawa sequence (this is another name for the pōwhiri process) that you are attempting to translate into your own practice.

eg. When you come into a coaching session with me you are met with a series of prompts that attempt to keep framing you as we go along. There is also a consideration of time and scope of the work that is about to happen, this is a part of the engagement process I aspire to emulate as I am moving through holding the session, this is also an expression of manaakitanga.

5.3 The traditional purpose of aroha was to feed and maintain relationships, manaakitanga was expressed in order to maintain the mana and integrity of the people and kotahitanga

was practiced to help group people for a common aim in unity and strength. I found these purposes very much apply to today as they are still relevant and help me to produce better work.

12.1  Identify a range of tikanga solutions


Exemplar: Context - Differences of Opinion - how tikanga solutions can be applied to solve differences in opinion. 


Whakapapa – Any solution must be connected to an issue that requires solving. Any issue has a whakapapa that lead the protagonists to their (shared) current position. Using the whakapapa of the issue to track its source is often the quickest way to solve a problem. Issues of disagreement can escalate though and often the source of the problem is no longer the issue, rather it is the behaviour of the protagonists after the issue was identified that has damaged the relationship. The key objective of any solution must be the relationship, because if the relationship is solid, understanding and trust will solve any issue.

Karakia – This is a practice that allows for the separation and isolation of states of being. This enables us to transition from one state of being to other states that are more conducive to problem-solving. Its purpose in solving disagreements is to isolate and separate states that do not contribute to solutions (anger, mistrust, denial, jealousy etc.), and transition protagonists to more helpful states (calmness, openness, acceptance, honesty, sincerity, etc.). 

Kawa – Kawa is a recognisable (by the protagonists) ritual, part of which may include karakia, that brings two sides together on a level playing field, to allow them to communicate openly in their mutual search for solutions. The ritual must be repeatable and recognisable so that all parties involved can become accustomed to it and anticipate what is to come. It can have as many stages as is required to transition participants to states of calmness and openness to communicate.

12.2  Identify a range of tikanga solutions in a mahi/business context

Exemplar: Context - Sales

Whakapapa  – Any sales solution must include a service or product and a buyer or borrower. Whakapapa applies to both of these and a seller must know the whakapapa of the service or product.


Where does it come from?

What are its attributes?

Why is it great?

What does it do?

Why should you buy it?

Why should you buy it from me? 

The other application of whakapapa in this solution is knowledge of the whakapapa of the buyer. What position or situation is the buyer in for which your product or service provides the solution?

What is their need or motivation to buy?

What options are available to them?

Of these options, what am I able to provide for them?

Karakia – This is an practice that can frame a group at work and bring them to purpose, to focus. This can be by literally conducting a karakia in the workplace, moreover, it can be the way you bring focus into the room. How a leader might use certain stories and kaupapa to grow and socialise purpose and intention. Karakia is about transitioning states (bringing the team into a place of focus from fragmentation) and also intention setting. This automatically assists a business to continue to grow. 

Kawa – Kawa in this context is a recognisable ritual, that one goes through that ends in an outcome that benefits both parties in a relationship. It includes karakia as explained above, but outlines a sequence of events that transitions the relationship of two total strangers into on that possibly ends in a business transaction. 

i.      This will involve whakapapa – knowing the product/service very well and knowing what potential buyers need. Knowing the competition and what other options a buyer may have. Knowing the reasons why a buyer may not buy your product and knowing why they should.

ii.     Making the first contact in a way that engages the potential buyer in a two-way conversation.

iii.   Transition smoothly into identifying the issue. What is their problem? What do they need? What is the extent of that problem? How can you help? (you should already know their problem).

iv.   Offer the solution. Pitch your product to them identifying how it can solve the problem and what its benefits are.

v.     Close the deal or offer alternatives.



12.3  Select and apply a range of tikanga solutions in a selected tikanga practice in familiar contexts

Exemplar – This  asks leaders to actually use tikanga to provide solutions to problems and the evidence of that will be in a journal or some other written or verbal evidence.


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